National Natural Landmark - Bergen Swamp

11 National Natural Landmarks Near Rochester

These National Natural Landmarks, recognized for their outstanding biological and geological resources, are all within a two-hour drive of Rochester, New York.

Best of Rochester - Day Trips Around Rochester book

Day Trips Around Rochester, New York

Rochester's Geographic History: Mendon Ponds Park Devils Bathtub
Mendon Devils Bathtub
Mendon Ponds bog
Mendon Ponds Park winter cover round pond

1. Mendon Ponds

Monroe County

National Natural Landmark est. 1967 – 2,462 acres

Get Directions

Mendon Ponds Park contains a unique complex of glacial features, including kames, eskers, esker fans, kettle holes, erratics, bogs, and ponds.

Mendon Ponds Park is the largest Monroe County Park with 2,500 acres of woodlands, ponds, wetlands, and glacially created landforms, including Devil’s Bathtub, a meromictic lake like Green and Round Lakes.

It’s been challenging to find an exact depth for Devil’s Bathtub documented, but two local geologists have recently stated its depth to be roughly 47 feet at its deepest point. If you are aware of more concrete evidence, please contact me!

Harts Woods Fairport
Harts Woods Perinton
Harts Woods Fairport
Harts Woods National Natural Landmark sign

2. Hart’s Woods

Monroe County

National Natural Landmark est. 1972 – 14 acres

Get Directions. There is room for one or two cars at the end of Greenwood Cliff, but I suspect most folks park at Minerva DeLand School down the hill.

Hart’s Woods is a rare remnant of an original glacial period beech-maple forest in Perinton. This type of forest with two dominant tree species thrives in areas of glacial till. 

If an imaginary line is drawn from East Rochester to the southeast corner of the town, the beech-maple forest dominates the area north of that line.

Fall Brook Fossil
Fall Brook Hike
Fall Brook Gorge

3. Fall Brook Gorge

Livingston County

National Natural Landmark est. 1970 – 102 acres, private property

Fall Brook Gorge in Geneseo represents one of the nation’s finest exposures of Upper and Middle Devonian Age strata with significant fossil remains and a cap-rock waterfall.

The gorge possesses a series of ecological communities in a small area that illustrate the response of plant and animal life to sharply contrasting microclimates.

Though private property, Trail Otter offers exclusive two-hour, one-mile guided hikes in the gorge. From their website, “Hike to a beautiful 60-foot waterfall via its stream, walking through a steep gorge.

“This is rated moderately difficult – requiring balance and appropriate footwear to traverse. There may be water in the gorge, so waterproof footwear is highly recommended. Ankle-twisting rocks, slippery creek banks and large rocks to navigate.”

Green Lakes State Park Round Lake view from south end
Green Lakes State Park Round Lake
Green Lakes State Park dad
Round Lake National Natural Landmark sign

4. Round Lake

Onondaga County

National Natural Landscape est. 1973 – 100 acres

Get Directions to the state park entrance

Round Lake, located within Green Lakes State Park, is one of 11 meromictic lakes reported in the United States. The site also contains about 20 acres of outstanding virgin mesophytic forest adjoining the lake.

Both Round and Green Lakes are meromictic lakes, which means that there is no fall and spring mixing of surface and bottom waters. Such lakes have a high potential for evidence of ancient plant and animal life.

National Natural Landmarks - Bergen Swamp
Bergen Swamp

5. Bergen-Byron Swamp

Genesee County

National Natural Landmark est. 1964 – 2,000 acres

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The Bergen-Byron Swamp encompasses diverse forest and wetland habitats that is unusually rich in plant and animal life.

The Bergen Swamp is a 10,000-year-old natural ecological succession following the retreat of the glaciers. The lichens were the first organisms to grow on the barren rock left by the retreating glaciers. And yet, lichens are still found in the Bergen Swamp climax communities, long after the pioneer stage of natural succession.

It is the first-ever private environmental land trust in the United States chartered as a New York State living museum and the first such site to be designated a National Natural Landmark.

National Natural Landmarks - Zurich Bog
Zurich Bog

6. Zurich Bog

Wayne County

National Natural Landmark est. 1973 – 490 acres

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Zurich Bog is a good example of northern sphagnum bog and bog forest vegetation, both of which are uncommon in north-central New York.

The Zurich Bog is a large, moderately acidic wetland trapped between large drumlins. Such wetlands were never common in this portion of the Great Lakes plain but have become increasingly rare since European settlement due to drainage, filling, and pollution. Thus, such a bog, particularly one of such size, is a rare treasure in this area.

National Natural Landmarks - Montezuma
Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

7. Montezuma Marshes

Seneca County

National Natural Landmark est. 1973 – 2,100 acres

Get Directions to the main pool (Black Lake) entrance and visitor center

Montezuma Marshes, located within the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge, is a marsh dominated by broad-leaved cattail. A small, 100-acre area within the site is one of the best examples of undisturbed swamp woodlands in New York or New England.

The Refuge provides over 9,000 acres of protected lands and managed wetlands for wildlife. Sixteen shallow-water impoundments provide more than 4,700 acres of freshwater wetlands. Adjacent uplands, which include grasslands, shrub fields, and forested tracts, are also actively managed for wildlife.

National Natural Landmarks - Moss Lake Bog

8. Moss Lake Bog

Allegany County

National Natural Landmark est. 1973 – 84 acres

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Moss Lake Bog is a classic example of a postglacial sphagnum bog invading and filling a small kettle lake. The various stages of bog succession are well illustrated here.

Moss Lake Preserve is managed by The Nature Conservancy.

Marion Steam Shovel
Marion Steam Shovel

9. Fossil Coral Reef

Genesee County

Natural National Landmark est. 1967 – 50 acres

Get Directions to the steam shovel. The quarry is private.

Fossil Coral Reef (private property), also known locally as Bradbury Quarry or Le Roy Quarry, is an abandoned limestone quarry in Le Roy, New York, and is an exposed fossil site.

The reef is the finest display of Devonian coral reef in New York, and includes core, flanking, and off-reef deposits, with rare tabulate and rugose corals, crinoids, gastropods, and trilobites.

Fun fact about the Marion Steam Shovel pictured above: it is the last Marion Steam Shovel known to exist in the world. It may also have been the inspiration for Mary Ann in the book Mike Mulligan and His Steam Shovel.

Things to do around Rochester NY: Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge Basom NY
Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge

10. Oak Orchard Creek Marsh

Genesee County

Natural National Landmark est. 1973 – 600 acres

Get Directions to the visitor center

Located within Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard Creek Marsh is a relatively undisturbed marsh, an ecosystem that is rare for this part of New York.

The refuge serves primarily as a nesting, feeding, resting, and staging area for migratory waterfowl. The varied habitats support approximately 266 species of birds and 42 species of mammals, plus reptiles, fish, amphibians, and insects.

At 10,828 acres, Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge is the largest wildlife refuge in New York State, not including the surrounding Oak Orchard and Tonawanda Wildlife Management Areas. The Alabama Swaps amasses a 19,000-acre complex designated for wildlife.

11. Deer Lick Nature Sanctuary

Cattaraugus County

National Natural Landmark est. 1967 – 410 acres

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Deer Lick Nature Sanctuary, located in Zoar Valley, contains a gorge that clearly illustrates the exposed stratifications of the Onondaga escarpment. The site also supports a mature northern hardwood forest.

Deer Lick offers a variety of forest types to experience, from meadow edge pioneer species to old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods. Catch glimpses of striking shale canyon walls during your hike. 

Deer Lick Conservation Area is managed by The Nature Conservancy.

Bergen Swamp
Bergen Swamp

More information about National Natural Landmarks

The National Natural Landmarks Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of sites that contain outstanding biological and geological resources.

Sites are designated by the Secretary of the Interior for their condition, illustrative character, rarity, diversity, and value to science and education. The National Park Service administers the program and works cooperatively with landowners, managers, and partners to promote the conservation and appreciation of our nation’s natural heritage.

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Have you visited any of our National Natural Landmarks?

Your insights and experiences are valuable. Please share them in the comments.

Debi Bower, Day Trips Around Rochester NY

Debi Bower is the founder and creative director of and author of the award-winning book Day Trips Around Rochester, New York.

People often ask me if I get free access to places while exploring. The answer is no unless I’m invited to previews or granted behind-the-scenes access as part of my media role. Generally, I don’t mention my project, Day Trips Around Rochester, NY, because I want the same experience you would have. I create and share content simply because it brings me joy. I would appreciate your support—a cup of coffee or two to help fuel future field trips—if you have found valuable information here that has helped you explore the Rochester area.

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